Issue 103/4 (2022) of the magazine “Gregorianum” is available, quarterly published by the Gregorian University. To purchase the entire dossier or individual items:



Gabino Uríbarri Bilbao, Getsemaní según Ratzinger, Sergio de Constantinopla y Máximo el Confesor. La postura de Ratzinger a debate

Abstract - Ratzinger’s understanding of the will of Christ in Gethsemane is analyzed, detecting a clearly Monothelite understanding: one only will of the person. His closeness to Monothelite texts such as the “covenant of union”, the Pséphos of Sergius of Constantinople and the Ekthesis is noted. All these points of view are contrasted with Maximus the Confessor, whom Ratzinger claims to follow. It concludes with an assessment showing a possible alternative from Ratzinger to overcome his monothelitism.

Keywords: Monothelitism – Monoenergism – III Constantinople – humanity of Christ –salvation – Ratzinger


Yilun Cai, To follow or overcome our nature? Reflections on the goodness of human nature with Mencius and Thomas Aquinas

Abstract - The doctrine of original sin gives people the impression that the goodness of human nature is under-evaluated in the Christian theological tradition. The Chinese philosopher Mencius is famous for his teaching on the goodness of human nature. Reading Mencius and Thomas Aquinas side by side, this article argues that the Mencian teaching on human nature brings us to affirm the goodness of human nature by recovering the significance of the image of God for the Christian doctrine of human nature. If we seek the goodness of human nature in the possibilities to become good, it is natural to see that even in the fallen state the possibilities of becoming like God remain in human nature imprinted with the image of God. It is open to the culmination of a gradual progression to its perfection.

Keywords: comparative theology – human nature – image of God – Mencius –Thomas Aquinas


Claudio César Calabrese – Ethel Junco, La filosofía platónica a la luz de la parábola de los talentos Teeteto 176e-177c en Stromata I, 18 de Clemente de Alejandría

Abstract - We start from the continuity between the classical world and revelation, to interpret Teet. 176e-177c in Stromata I, 18, although in the opposite direction: from Scripture to Plato. This search refers to the truths assumed in the revelation, which implies a double perspective, natural and supernatural. We investigated, then, if Clemente has managed to establish his own modulation of philosophy, starting from the expression “the cause is not god”, which collects “God is not unjust in any way whatsoever, but is as fair as possible” (Teet. 176c-d). In the conclusion we affirm that understanding the world and contemplating the glory of God are part of the same conceptual organization; for this reason, it is important to consider the structure of faith, since it expresses the tension that the believer reaches in the face of the dogma of creation (one of the senses of the parable of the talents). Thus, through a spiritual intuition, Clemente bridges the gap between faith and metaphysics.

Keywords: Clement of Alexandria – Plato – Middle Platonism – Revelation – True


Ľuboš Rojka, S.I., La necessità del male particolare nella teodicea dell’Open Theism

Abstract - The method of contemporary analytic philosophy allows for the development of a variety of traditional philosophical theologies among which Open Theism has become majoritarian. The temporality and openness of God to the future that is implicit in this conception have some significant consequences for theodicy. Recent critiques by G. Welty and K. Perszyk show that the temporal «limits» of divine omniscience should not be used for the justification of the existence of evil. God knows perfectly all the possibilia of his creature. The solution of Open Theism is to affirm the necessity of the existence of particular evil for a more universal good of morally significant freedom. This kind of good is not intended as a justification of particular evils, as a «greater» good that would defeat them. Some evils in this world must remain undefeated to play their role in God’s creature.

Keywords: evil – suffering – theodicy – open theism – all-perfect God


Piero Boitani, Dante e la teologia

Abstract - In this essay I try to offer as exhaustive a view as possible of Dante’s theology, if by ‘theology’ we mean a ‘discourse about God’. He, however, never explicitly mentions theology (he does in the Convivio), except in his definition of faith in Paradiso

XXIV, where theology would be the ‘argomento’ about invisible realities. Rather, Dante speaks of wisdom, both in the Convivio and in the poem, and equally of divine Wisdom and human sophia (filo-sofia). I therefore examine the passages of the Bible, mostly from Proverbs and Wisdom, which recur in Dante’s thought and poetry, and the great Wisdom Cantos in Paradiso X-XIV and XVIII-XX, deliberately contrasted with the Castle of Limbo of Inferno IV. He thus opposes Christian and pagan sophia. Dante’s strong desire for wisdom entails the problem of knowledge and brings him on two parallel paths, towards the indiarsi (becoming one with God) and towards the Creation, God’s first action ever. They coincide in the last three lines of the Comedy, where Dante’s desire and will are moved by the same Love that moves the sun and the other stars, Dante himself becoming finally an object of God’s perennial Creation.

Keywords: Dante – Wisdom – Creation


Nathaniel Sanders, Joseph de Maistre: A Molinist Responds to the French Revolution

Abstract - Joseph de Maistre represents a continuation of Jesuit thought after the suppression of the Society of Jesus through his appropriation of Congruist-Molinist ideas of providence and predestination. This tendency in his thought has long been overlooked, but must be grasped in order to understand his political theory and trust in tradition. Through an analysis of his response to the French Revolution, which he viewed as a divinely permitted felix culpa, this influence of thought can be clearly seen.

Keywords: Joseph de Maistre – Congruism – Molinism – French Revolution – Providence – Predestination – Jesuit History


Carlos Llinàs, Heidegger: la dualidad Christentum-Christlichkeit. Pregunta por el Urchristentum y pregunta por el Ser-Tiempo y su historia: Overbeck y otros aspectos de la «callada confrontación» de Heidegger con el cristianismo

Abstract - Heidegger’s distinction between Christentum and Christlichkeit comes from Franz Overbeck and overlaps with Kierkegaard’s distinction between Christenhed and Christendom. Although there are coincidences in the underlying problems pointed out by both dualities, their origin is different. The Heideggerian distinction does not arise merely from the critique of a religious corruption, but from a historical-critical investigation of early Christianity that sees in it a radical eschatological experience of time. The convergence in the concept of time of the genealogy of the question of Being with the genealogy of the question of the original essence of primitive Christianity illuminates in its own way, perhaps, the peculiar Heideggerian historicism.

Keywords: Heidegger – Overbeck – Kierkegaard – ChristentumChristlichkeit – primitive Christianity – being – time


Riccardo Campa – Christopher Corbally – Margaret Boone Rappaport, Searching for the Roots of Western Ecotheology: Pliny the Elder, Paul the Apostle, Boethius

Abstract - The main aim of this study is to discern, reconstruct, and make visible the historical roots of Western ecotheology, with particular (but not exclusive) attention to the

contributions of Christian theologians. We mainly focus on three thinkers: Pliny the Elder, Paul the Apostle, and Severinus Boethius. Pliny offers a pagan perspective on environmental problems. Paul is essential as he is the putative “father” of the Christian Faith, or, at least, the man that brought Christianity from East to West. Boethius is perhaps the best example of a theologian that tries to reconcile and synthesize the Greek Roman and Judeo-Christian roots of our civilization. Their views are compared with those of coeval theologians and modern environmentalists. Our conclusion is that an ecotheological orientation emerges especially in the work of those Christian thinkers who underline the continuity rather than the discontinuity between their ideas and the Gentiles’ ones.

Keywords: Environmentalism – Christianity – Paganism – Redemption – History of Ideas


James McTavish, “Trapped in the wrong body” – Some Concerns regarding Gender Ideology

Abstract - More and more young people today are presenting with confusion regarding their gender identity. Often these adolescents feel “trapped in the wrong body.” The typical treatment until recently for a boy saying he wanted to become a girl was expectant waiting and family therapy, with the awareness that the vast majority (around 85%) would grow out of this. However, many in the world of medicine and psychology now strongly propose that the only treatment for gender dysphoria is to change the body to match the experienced identity. Thus, the confused adolescent who asks for help is propelled on a journey of social transitioning, puberty blockers, cross sex hormones and even mutilating surgery. This article will critically review this “Gender Affirmation Therapy” and offer a clearer outline of a coherent Catholic medical and ethical vision on this controversial issue.

Keywords: gender – identity – dysphoria – transition – ideology


Stefano Del Bove, S.I. – Fernando de la Iglesia Viguiristi, S.I., Annotazioni a margine del decennale della pubblicazione del documento: La vocazione del leader d’impresa

Abstract - Ten years after the publication of the Vatican document, The Vocation of the Business Leader, this article intends to offer a new reflection on its contents, its historical foundation and its references to the Social Doctrine of the Church. An in-depth study in terms of the theory of virtues – with specific reference to prudence in corporate life – and the Servant Leadership Model help to better define the current vocation of the Christian business leader.

Keywords: Business – Vocation – Virtues – Servant Leadership – Social Doctrine of the Church


Antropologia filosofica, Teologia Trinitaria e Ecclesiologia al femminile: I. Gebara, Ensayo de antropología filosófica. El arte de mezclar conceptos y plantar desconceptos (Y. Rodríguez Jiménez), 901-903; E. C. Montserrat, Trinidad, deseo y subversion. La vida trinataria de las mujeres (M. C. Aparicio Valls), 903-904; A-M. Pelletier, Una comunione di donne e di uomini. La forma della chiesa (R. Manes), 905-907.




Biblia: C. Focant, Une Passion, trois récits (G. Pulcinelli), 909-911; C. J. Sharp, Jeremiah 26–52, International Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament (M. Settembrini), 911-913; K. Zilverberg – C. Scott, ed., The Revelation of Your Words. The New Evangelization and the Role of the Seminary Professor of Sacred Scripture (G. De Virgilio), 913-915.

Theologia: M. de Asúa, Science and Catholicism in Argentina (1750-1960): A Study on Scientific Culture, Religion, and Secularisation in Latin America (J. L. Narvaja), 916-917; J. J. Ayán Calvo – M. Aroztegi Esnaola – P. de Navascués Benlloch – A. Sáez Gutiérez, ed., Ireneo de Lyon, Contra las herejías I (H. Pietras), 918-920; C. Militello, Fraternità e sororità. Sfida per la Chiesa e la liturgia (A. M. Putti), 920-921; M. Seewald, Il Dogma in divenire. Equilibrio dinamico di continuità e discontinuità (A. M. Putti), 922-923.

Ius Canonicum: G. C. Peña, ed., Derecho canónico y Pastoral. Concreciones y retos pendientes (M. Visioli), 924-925.

Philosophia: R. Schneider, Die Einheit von Einheit und Vielheit: Eine Untersuchung zur Elementarstruktur des Panentheismus (J. Stoffers), 925-927.

Missiologia: A. Bonta Moreland, Muhammad Reconsidered. A Christian Perspective on Islamic Prophecy (L. Passalacqua), 927-929; G. Said Reynolds, Allah: God in the Qur’an (A. Mokrani), 929-931; U. Sartorio, Conversione. Un concetto controverso, una sfida per la missione cristiana (I. Morali), 932-934.

Historia Ecclesiae: C. A. Azevedo Moreira, Santa Maria. Teologia, arte e culto. Contributo do Santuário Mariano (M. A. Bilotta), 934-935; A. Fejérdy – B. Virthné Diera, ed., The Trial of Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty from the perspective of seventy years. The fate of Church Leaders in Central and Eastern Europe (R. Danieluk), 935-937; F. López-Arias, El Concilio Vaticano II y la arquitectura sagrada. Origen y evolución de unos principios programáticos (1947-1970), (Y. Dohna Schlobitten), 938-939; J. Yacoub, Les Assyro-Chaldéens. Mémoires d’une tragédie qui se répète (M. Werfeli), 940-941.

Spiritualitas: J. A. Merkle, Discipleship, Secularity, and the Modern Self. Dancing to Silent Music (E. Panato), 942-943.



B. Aniello, ed., Sonus 1 Firenze, Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, 944





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